Kirkbymoorside Town Council

The Shambles, Crown Square, Kirkbymoorside, York YO62 6AY
Tel: 01751 432217


(Created in 1999, revised in 2011)

Site Description


Manor Vale is situated on the northern edge of Kirkbymoorside at National Grid Reference SE 693 872. It is reached from Dale End to the south, passing the former North Yorkshire County Council Highways Depot. Footpaths from Gillamoor Road and Castlegate Lane lead into the site. Map 1 shows the site boundaries.

Manor Vale lies entirely in the Civil Parish of Kirkbymoorside in the district of Ryedale, North Yorkshire.

Ryedale District Council is the local planning authority. North Yorkshire County Council is the relevant authority regarding Public Rights of Way.

Summary description

Manor Vale is a narrow, Y-shaped dry valley cut into the Jurassic strata of the Tabular Hills which form the southern fringe of the North York Moors. It is located at the northern edge of Kirkbymoorside, within easy reach of the town centre.

The limestone slopes of the Vale support semi-natural ash woodland with characteristic plants including field maple, wych elm, dog's mercury, wood speedwell, wood anemone and primrose. A number of uncommon plants of limestone woodlands occur including green hellebore, toothwort and lily-of-the-valley. Two areas of more acidic woodland featuring species such as oak, rowan, silver birch, bilberry and greater woodrush mark outcrops of sandstone. Small areas of limestone grassland can be found at Low Knoll and along the break of slope at the eastern edge of the site.

The site supports a range of birds characteristic of mature broadleaved woodland including Redstart and Nuthatch. Insects include the very rare flower beetle Oedemera virescens, a species associated with ancient woodland and parkland on the southern fringes of the North York Moors.

Manor Vale was formerly part of a mediaeval deer park. The remains of a wall and Scheduled Ancient Monument, are located in the south-east corner of the site adjacent to Castlegate Lane.

Manor Vale is extensively used by the local community for quiet recreation and has open public access. It is owned and managed by Kirkbymoorside Town Council.

Tenure, management arrangements, rights of way and easements.

The site is owned in freehold by Kirkbymoorside Town Council, having been purchased from Mr.J.H.Holt in April 1993 with grant aid from Ryedale District Council and North Yorkshire County Council. ( see map 1 for site boundary)

Following acquisition of the site, a Management Committee was established comprising representatives of Kirkbymoorside Town Council, Ryedale District Council, Ryedale Naturalists' Society and Ravenswick Estates. Other members may be co-opted by the committee as required.

An initial draft management plan was produced in 1993 (see Appendix 2). This divided the wood into three compartments. Compartment 1 is the area west of the road, Compartment 2 is the area East of the road and Compartment 3 includes Low Knoll. To avoid confusion this report uses the same compartment boundaries.(see map 2 for details)

The sporting rights to the wood are held by the Ravenswick Estate. Kirkbymoorside Golf Club holds responsibility for the upkeep of the road and, by mutual agreement, periodic cutting of the road verges. Short-term use by the club of a small area of open ground for overflow car parking has been agreed by the Manor Vale Management Committee.

The site is not subject to a Woodland Grant Scheme or other management agreement.

Public Rights of Way follow the road from Dale End to the golf club, the track through Low Knoll and a path along the eastern boundary of the wood. In practice, there is open public access to the site throughout the year.

Easements for the utilities supplying the golf club are shown on map 3.

Map coverage

Ordnance Survey 1: 10,000 Sheet SE 68 NE

Ordnance Survey 1: 50,000 Sheet 100 (Malton and Pickering)

Geological Survey of England and Wales: 1: 50,000 – Sheet 53 (Pickering)

Environmental information

Physical environment

Manor Vale is one of a series of valleys cutting north to south through the southern foothills of the North York Moors, known as the Tabular Hills. The underlying rocks are Corallian formations of the Upper Jurassic period, laid down in warm, shallow seas over 150 million years ago (Rayner & Hemingway, 1974). These consist of inter-bedded limestones and sandstones, which can give rise to quite complex stratification of the overlying soils, especially on valley slopes. The vegetation in Manor Vale suggests that the soils are predominantly lime-rich (calcareous) although there are distinct areas on the upper slopes where acidic and lime-deficient soils overlie outcrops of sandstone. Quarried (and natural?) rock exposures occur in several places. The valley side slopes are very steep aprroximaltey a 50-76 degree angle in most places. There are a number of cliff sections in both the eastern and western valley sides where the chalk has been quarried in the past. At its widest the valley is 100m wide.

The valley bottom is located at around 80 m. AOD with the top of the slopes at around 110m. AOD.

Mean annual rainfall in this area is around 750-800 mm.



Most of the site supports semi-natural (ie.unplanted) woodland. Ash is the dominant canopy tree with common oak and wych elm more patchily distributed. Field maple is widely but thinly scattered whilst sycamore is mainly confined to the southern and northern ends of the wood, although saplings occur more widely. Self-sown beech saplings occur very locally. Oak tends to become more frequent towards the top of the valley slopes, often with some holly in the understorey, marking a transition to less lime-rich soils.

The structure of the woodland is very variable, ranging from 'high forest' with a continuous canopy of tall trees and little understorey through to shrub-dominated areas and dense stands of young ash. Thickets of even-aged hawthorn at Low Knoll (Compartment 3) probably results from rapid scrub growth following the cessation of grazing. Hazel is locally distributed in the understorey throughout the wood and although there are some large, old specimens there is little indication of past coppice management. Blackthorn and elder occur in places, probably marking areas which have been disturbed.

A number of veteran trees occur throughout the wood many of which are in excess of 3m in girth. In addition there is a wide range of standing and fallen dead wood throughout the site.

Dog's mercury is the most abundant herb with wood anemone, pignut, enchanter's nightshade, primrose, wood speedwell, sweet violet and common dog violet found frequently through most of the wood. Ramsons, bluebell, wood sorrel, yellow pimpernel, sanicle, wood melick, wood false-brome and male fern are more localised whilst wild arum, goldilocks, buttercup, early dog violet, herb Robert, hairy St. John's wort, bugle, tussock grass, wood sedge and broad buckler fern occur occasionally.

Other species have a localised but very distinct distribution. Hard shield fern grows almost exclusively in rocky areas on the western side of the valley. Intermediate avens (a hybrid between wood avens and water avens) is locally abundant on damp ground at the foot of theslopes. Early purple orchid appears to be confined to Low Knoll. Lily of the valley, woodruff, green hellebore and toothwort have been recorded from single locations within the site.

Towards the northern end of Compartment 1, there is a marked transition to more acidic woodland on the upper slope (area A on Map 2). This is characterised by oak, silver birch and rowan with greater woodrush, downy woodrush, wavy hair-grass and bilberry in the field layer. Associated species include bitter vetch, wood sorrel and slender St. John's wort. A massive specimen of sessile oak stands at the edge of the wood.

A second pocket of acidic woodland is located towards the brow of the slope in Compartment 2 (Area E). This comprises a mixture of common oak and silver birch, some holly, honeysuckle, rowan and scattered gorse bushes. The herb flora here includes tormentil, betony, devilsbit scabious, heath bedstraw, slender St.John's wort, bitter vetch and sweet vernal grass.

Small areas of limestone grassland are found adjacent to Low Knoll (within the golf course boundary) and alongside the footpath following the eastern edge of the wood (Area D -Finches Fork). Species characteristic of this type of grassland include lady's bedstraw, cowslip, common birdsfoot trefoil, salad burnet and quaking grass.

A clearing occupies the valley floor at the northern end of Compartment 1 (area C on Map 2). This supports coarse grassland with cocksfoot, false-oat, tussock grass, hogweed, stinging nettle and spear thistle, part of this is under regular mamanegment as amenity grassland

An old hedgerow runs along part of the eastern boundary of the wood, containing wych elm, hazel, field maple, blackthorn, holly, ash and oak.

176 species of flowering plants and ferns have been recorded from Manor Vale in recent years (see Appendix 3).

Mr. D.H. Smith has surveyed the lichen flora of Manor Vale (see Appendix 2 for species lists). No scarce species have been found but a number of interesting epiphytic lichens grow on tree trunks and branches.

Plant communities

The National Vegetation Classification (NVC) provides a standard ecological description of British plant communities (Rodwell, 1991) and is now widely used in site survey and assessment.

The majority of the site supports ash-field maple-dog's mercury woodland, coded W8 in the NVC. This is the typical semi-natural woodland found on freely-draining, lime-rich soils in lowland England. Ancient stands have a characteristically rich flora and have often been managed by coppicing in the past, although there is little evidence of this at Manor Vale.

Area contains oak-birch-wavy hair grass woodland (W16), a community of well-drained, very acid, nutrient poor soils. This marks an outcrop of sandstone with thin, very lime-deficient soil. Ash and dog's mercury are absent whilst bilberry, wavy hair-grass and sessile oak1 are particularly characteristic species of this type of woodland. Oak-birch-wavy hair-grass woodland is widespread on steep valley slopes within the North York Moors National Park (Jerram et al, 1998) but of very localised occurrence in lowland Ryedale.

Area E is similar but lacks bilberry and wavy hair-grass; this stand is not easy to place in relation to the National Vegetation Classification.

1One massive sessile oak stands at the edge of this area. A brief examination of oaks in the wood as a whole suggests that the majority are common oak but a proportion are hybrids between the common and sessile species.


The 1993 Management Plan lists 38 birds recorded during the preceding ten years and considered to be probable or possible breeders. Many of these are typical woodland species such as Great Spotted Woodpecker, Tawny Owl, tits and finches. More localised species include Marsh Tit, Nuthatch, Redstart and, most notably, Pied Flycatcher. A further ten species are listed as having been seen in or around the wood but not considered to be breeding (eg. winter visitors such as Fieldfare and Redwing).

Further survey is required to update this information, and particularly to assess the current status and distribution of the more localised breeding species.

Little information seems to be available on mammals. Roe Deer are reported to pass through occasionally. Species noted include Mole, Grey Squirrel, Bank Vole and Rabbit.

Mr. D.H. Smith has compiled species lists for several Orders of invertebrates (see Appendix 4). Most notable amongst these is the flower beetle Oedemera virescens, which was collected on buttercup flowers in May 1993.

This is an extremely localised insect with its British stronghold in ancient wood-land in the Jurassic limestone valleys on the southern edge of the North York Moors, between Rievaulx and Pickering (Hyman & Parsons, 1992; Hammond & Crossley, 1996). Oedemera virescens is thought to develop as a larva in dead wood, the adults visiting flowers to obtain nectar. The presence of a number of other insects associated with dead wood or ageing trees is noteworthy; these include the Cardinal Beetle, Pyrochroa serraticornis, and the Wasp Beetle, Clytus arietis.

Archaeology and land use history

Archaeological interest centres on the site of Neville Castle, located at the south-eastern edge of Manor Vale (grid.ref. SE 6946 8694). The castle and associated remains were excavated over several seasons between 1962 and 1974 and the findings published (see Dornier, 1967 and Williams, 1977). The later excavations were funded by the Department of the Environment in advance of building development on part of the castle site.

12thCentury pottery shards suggest a long history of human occupation of the castle site with a timber-framed hall established there from around 1300. The original buildings were occupied until the late 15thor early 16thCentury then demolished to make way for a more substantial hunting lodge.

This lodge, Neville Castle, replaced Stuteville Castle (a moated enclosure on Vivier's Hill, 500 m. to the east) as the seat of Manor of Kirkbymoorside, held by the Neville family. This was a high status dwelling of domestic rather than defensive or military purpose, and comprised a set of stone buildings surrounding a courtyard.

By around 1600 the castle had fallen into disuse, the seat of the Manor having been transferred to High Hall, some 200 m. to the south. Rimington (1977) states that the castle was dismantled in 1616 to provide building material for High Hall.

Neville Castle was attached to a pre-existing deer park enclosing an area between Park lane and the Gillamoor Road with a perimeter of 3.75km. Low and High Park Farms are reminders of this, the former probably being the original park warden's residence (Rimington, 1977). The presence of a deer park is of considerable ecological as well as historical interest, since these enclosures often protected areas of natural woodland and provided a link between theprehistoric 'wild wood' and the modern landscape. Manor Vale lay within the park pale (perimeter) and ancient woodland here maybe a vestige of the mediaeval landscape.

Oak timber from Kirkbymoorside park was sent to repair Meaux Abbey near Beverley in the early 12thCentury. Rimington (1970) mentions that Baldwin de Wake owned the Kirkbymoorside park in the 13th Century and in 1282 it was said to be “of a legue in circuit and to contain seven score beasts”. In 1570, the park was described as adjoining the site of the Neville Castle, being

  "...very well planted with wood and timber, wherein large 
  laundes<sup>2</sup> and is well replenished with fallow deer and containeth 
  in compass two miles and a half in measure and CLXXVII acres, 
  wherein one Keeper, William Bankes, which hath stipend yearly 
  of LX s., VIII d..." (cited in Rimington, 1977)

The park was shown as an enclosure on Saxton's Map of Yorkshire of 1577 and John Speede's map of the North and East Ridings of 1610. By the 17thCentury however, most of the park had been turned over to agriculture, presumably coinciding with the dereliction of Neville Castle.

More recent land use does not appear to be well-documented. Quarrying has clearly taken place within Manor Vale and the amount of woodland has probably varied over time. The disused County Council highways depot is located in a former quarry cutting. More small-scale quarrying has taken place in the north of the wood.

Photographs of the northern end of the Vale, taken ca. 1911, are on display at Kirkbymoorside Golf Club. At this time the Vale formed part of the course and was open 'park' woodland, presumably grazed by sheep. The photographs show that there was little undergrowth, at least in the northern part of the wood, but some of the mature trees still stand today. This indicates that the wood has not been clear-felled during the present century and there has probably been a long continuity of mature timber habitat .

Part of the site was used by the army during World War II, with nissen huts present in the early 1940s.

For a period up until the 1960s, part of Manor Vale continued to be grazed by live-stock. Evidence of this can be seen around Low Knoll where there has been dense, even-aged regeneration of thorn scrub after grazing ceased.

Although there are a number of old hazel stools within the wood, there is no evidence of coppicing during the recent history of the site.

Since the town councils acquisition of the wood, access has been improved by the construction of steps and interpretive panels have been installed. The management of the woodland has been limited intervention with action only being undertaken when it was judged that individual trees posed a threat, if it was possible old trees would be retained as dead wood habitat, Natural processes have taken hold within the majority of the wood compartments with tree recruitment limited to natural regeneration of self sown saplings occurring when gaps occur in the canopy and self selection of older saplings through natural competition in sunny gaps. The areas D now known as Finches Fork has been regularly mown and raked to increase grassland biodiversity. Part of area C and the road verges are regularly mown during the growing season.

Evaluation and objectives

Conservation status

Nature conservation

Part of Manor Vale Wood (including Spring Wood in Tenterdale to the north west) is mapped as Ancient Semi-natural (ie. unplanted) Woodland in English Nature's Ancient Woodland Inventory (Philips, 1994). The whole of Manor Vale can be characterised as ancient semi-natural woodland, although Spring Wood is largely planted with ash, beech and sycamore.

In April 1995, Ryedale District Council included Manor Vale Wood amongst a list of Nature Conservation Sites of District Importance in the draft Ryedale Local Plan ( SINC). This does not confer statutory legal protection (as in a site of Special Scientific Interest) but Local Plan policies aim to protect such 'second tier' sites against damaging development. These sites also receive priority in terms of practical support for conservation management.


Neville Castle was originally scheduled as an Ancient Monument in December 1962 and this designation was amended in April 1974.

In January 1998, English Heritage proposed amending the Scheduled Monument boundaries to include the exposed mediaeval masonry within Manor Vale. Section 1 of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act (1979) applies.

Details are included in Appendix 1.

Evaluation of nature conservation interest

It is useful to evaluate the nature conservation interest of the site in order to identify important features and management objectives. Well-established criteria set out in A nature conservation review (Ratcliffe, 1977) are followed in this section and their implications for management are discussed. Management recommendations are given in italics.


Small sites are vulnerable to the effects of neighbouring land use (e.g. intrusion of urban development, drift of agricultural chemicals). At around 6.5 hectares, Manor Vale is a relatively small woodland and has a long thin shape which gives it a relatively long perimeter in relation to its area. Its location in a valley limits the impact of adjoining land use to some extent


For a small woodland site, Manor Vale supports a high diversity of plantlife, with nearly 180 flowering plants and ferns recorded in recent years.

Although most of the woodland is calcareous ash wood (NVC community W8), small areas of acidic woodland, limestone grassland, scrub and the clearing south of Spring Wood add to the diversity of habitat within the site boundaries. There is considerable diversity of woodland structure which reflects the varied landform of Manor Vale and the absence of commercial forestry management, which tends to create uniformity. Important features which contribute to habitat diversity are marked on Map 2.

The existing range of habitats and vegetation structure should be maintained. This requires minimal management of the woodland but periodic mowing of the grassland areas is necessary to prevent these becoming overgrown and eventually reverting to scrub. Occasional cutting or at least removal of invading scrub will be necessary to maintain the open glade in Tenterdale(Area C).

A small area of open, rocky slope toward the northern end of Compartment 1 (area B on Map 2) has been identified as supporting a particular diverse flora. Occasional removal of saplings is necessary to maintain this feature.


Ryedale is relatively rich in ancient woodlands (see Weston, 1994) but the majority of these have been replanted with non-indigenous species such as sycamore, beech or conifers, Even in semi-natural woodlands (those where native tree species such as ash or oak predominate), recent management has often resulted in unnatural uniformity, typically with nearly all the trees of a similar age, little variation in canopy structure and very few, in any, old trees. Manor Vale is unusual in that it appears to be relatively natural with no evidence of recent replanting. Important features include

  • a varied age structure (see 1993 Management Plan, p2)
  • varied canopy structure
  • the presence of old trees and dead wood
  • a predominance of indigenous species
  • ample natural regeneration of the principal tree and shrub species3.

Less natural features include an abundance of dense, even-aged hawthorn on Low Knoll (Compartment 3), probably resulting from rapid scrub growth after grazing ceased.

The 'naturalness' of Manor Vale Wood contributes much to the character of the site, its appeal to local people and its value to wildlife. Maintaining its natural qualities should be a key consideration in all management decisions.

3 Ash regeneration is abundant with holly seedlings locally frequent on the upper slopes. Regeneration of wych elm and oak is localised. Small numbers of saplings or young plants of field maple, hazel, sycamore and beech are also noted.

Large scale felling and replanting is inappropriate and natural regeneration will ensure the continuity of the habitat for the foreseeable future. If natural regeneration of individual species is considered poor, seedlings can be protected with tree tubes or rabbit guards to promote survival and competing vegetation can be cut back.

At present there is no need for additional planting. If this should be considered necessary in future, transplants from within the site or other local woodlands should be used, or nursery-grown stock of locally-native provenance4.

Trees should be allowed to age naturally since aged trees provide one of the most important habitat features in woodland. The presence of dead and decaying timber is part of this natural process and should not be removed except where it presents a safety hazard. Where removal of hazardous timber is necessary, lopping, crown reduction, pollarding or leaving a standing bole should be considered in preference to felling.

Thinning of dense hawthorn growth on Low Knoll and on the golf club road margins will help restore a more balanced vegetation structure and allow canopy trees to re-establish as well as benefiting the ground flora.

Areas thinned within the past few years are already supporting a rich and attractive ground flora.

Potentially invasive species such as Japanese knotweed, beech and sycamore, which are not indigenous to this site, should not be allowed to spread.


None of the flowering plants or ferns recorded from Manor Vale are nationally scarce although lily of the valley is described as rare in the context of the North York Moor National Park (Sykes, 1993). This species, along with sessile oak, green hellebore, toothwort, woodruff, greater woodrush and hard shield fern are uncommon or very local in Ryedale district (outside the National Park).

The beetle Oedemera virescenshas its British stronghold in old woodland on the southern edge of the North York Moors. This is a 'Red Data Book' species5, classed as Vulnerable (RDB2), i.e. likely to become endangered in Britain if existing populations decline.

The special needs of rare, threatened or declining species should be considered. Oedemera virescensis probably associated with the presence of dead or decaying timber and the adults visit hawthorn blossom and flowers such as buttercups to obtain nectar (Hyman & Parsons, 1992).

Allowing trees to age naturally, retaining dead wood (where safety permits), keeping a fringe of open-grown hawthorn bushes and other flowering shrubs around the woodland edge and maintaining flower-rich glades will benefit this and many other woodland insects.

4Imported stock, even of native species, may be unsuited to the local climate, soils, pollinating insects etc. Also, commercially-grown stock is often selected for timber value, uniform growth form or other attributes which are not appropriate to semi-natural woodland.

5Red Data Books are inventories of rare or threatened species, compiled in Britain by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee.


Woodlands such as Manor Vale with a long continuity of natural vegetation cover, undisturbed by modern forestry practices, are now scarce. Although there are many ancient woods in Ryedale, Manor Vale is one of the few that have not been managed for intensively for timber production.

Clear-felling and replanting, spread of invasive species (eg. sycamore, Japanese Knotweed) and excessive trampling could all disturb the ecology of the site. However, small scale management (eg. removal of hazardous trees for safety reasons, thinning of limited areas, clearance of some hawthorn scrub) is beneficial in maintaining open areas and encouraging a diverse vegetation structure. Present levels of recreational use have only a very localised impact and the paths provide open verges used by woodland-edge species.

Large scale management operations are inappropriate on this site. Potentially invasive species should be kept under control. Footpaths should be maintained to encourage use of well-definedroutes.

Quiet recreation (eg. walking, dog-exercising) is an important – and welcome – use of the wood but more damaging activities (eg. mountain biking) should be discouraged.


Manor Vale Wood is fairly typical of semi-natural ash woodland (NVC community W8) in Ryedale. Such woodlands are a very distinctive feature of the limestone valleys on the southern fringe of the North York Moors, and make an important contribution to the special landscape character of northern Ryedale.

Recorded history

The history of Manor Vale is known mainly in relation to the medieval deer park, of which it appears to have formed part (see section 1.2.3.). Collation of more recent historical information would be valuable in understanding the heritage of the site and kits evolution as a woodland. This could be used in any interpretive or educational material which might be produced in future.

There seems to be little information on the wildlife of Manor Vale until quite recently, although Henry Baines' Flora of Yorkshire, published in 1840, mentions frog orchid at this locality. This would suggest that there was some open limestone grassland within the site in the early 19thcentury.

Local naturalists have kept records of wildlife during 1980s and 1990s, which have been compiled by Mr.D.H. Smith (see Appendix 2). Formal vegetation-based surveys have been undertaken in 1989 (Ryedale Phase 1 habitat survey) and 1993 (Ryedale Woodland Survey). Further botanical survey were carried out in 1998 (see Appendix 3).

Research into the history of Manor Vale should be encouraged. Further biological survey should be encouraged to provide additional information on the nature conservation interest of the site, guide management and monitor ecological changes. Specific needs include an up to date survey of breeding birds.

Position in ecological units

Manor Vale is one of a series of ancient valley woodlands distributed along the southern foothills of the North York Moors. The ecological importance of this can be seen in relation to the distribution of the beetle Oedemera virescens, which has its British stronghold in these woodlands. Other sites for this species include Ashberry, Castle Hill, Duncombe Park, Rievaulx Woods, the banks of the River Rye downstream of Helmsley and Gundale near Pickering.

On a more local scale, Manor Vale Wood adjoins Spring Wood as well as small areas of limestone grassland and scrub on the golf course boundaries. These add to the ecological interest and diversity of the site and provide additional areas of semi-natural habitat on its periphery.

Conservation of adjoining areas of semi-natural habitat should be encouraged. Patches of limestone grassland within the golf course boundary at Low Knoll are in urgent need of clearing to prevent scrub invasion.

Manor Vale is one of a series of valley woodlands in the Helmsley-Pickering area and could provide a model for conservation management of similar sites, e.g. through the Ryedale Biodiversity Action Plan.

Potential value

This criterion applies mainly to sites where there is potential to restore, re-create or enhance habitats. At Manor Vale, management is mainly concerned with maintaining the existing interest of the site.

Management objectives

Objectives of management are:

  • To manage Manor Vale Wood for the enjoyment of the local community and as a wildlife habitat.
  • To encourage community involvement in the management of the site and to promote public interest in the history, heritage and wildlife of Manor Vale, including educational use.
  • To maintain the natural character of Manor Vale Wood,
  • To maintain the range of existing habitats within the site.
  • To conserve scarce or threatened species inhabiting the site.

Constraints on management

The principal factors constraining management of the site include:

a) Availability of manpower, funding and resources.

Support from Ryedale District Council has been made available through the design and funding of display boards, employment of the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers to undertake footpath and woodland management work and ongoing liaison with the Management Committee. As a site of district nature conservation importance, organisational support and modest funds may be available from the District Council for management projects but these are constrained by annual budgets and staff time. A small annual budget is allocated by Kirkbymoorside Town Council, the amount varying from year to year.

Due to these constraints, funding for more ambitious projects would need to be sought from other sources, e.g. landfill tax funds.

b) Legal liabilities e.g. those arising from the Occupiers' Liability Act regarding public safety, or those arising from wildlife protection legislation.

The main obligation regarding public safety is to deal with dangerous trees adjoining the road and footpaths. The Management Committee has an agreement with Ravenswick Estate to deal with potential hazardous timber and to remove fallen trees causing obstruction.

'Steep drop' signs have been installed to warn of hazardous old quarry cuttings on Low Knoll (Compartment 3).

None of the plants or animals recorded to date from Manor Vale receive special protection under the Wildlife & Countryside Act (1981), although it is likely that some trees contain bat roosts. If this is found to be the case, Schedule 5 of the act applies and advice must be sought from English Nature before undertaking any work on such trees. In addition, most breeding birds receive general protection under the Act, which requires that reasonable measures be taken to avoid destruction of their nests, eggs or young. For this reason, and as a matter of good practice, any felling or clearance of trees and shrubs should take place outside the period March to July.

c) Protection of the archaeological interest of the remains of Neville Castle within the site.

Works which may affect the Scheduled Monument and its setting require consent from the Secretary of State via advice from the County archaeologist (NYCC) and/or the local English Heritage Inspector of Ancient Monuments.

d) The location of easements for utilities such as electricity, water and telephones (see Map 3).

The location of these supplies – and the possible need for repair and maintenance works – should be considered where appropriate. In practice, few foreseeable problems should arise.

It should be noted that lopping of trees along the route of the overhead electricity supply will be required from time to time (this work is usually undertaken by the supply company). This would mainly affect area C, an open glade with a few young trees, and is unlikely to have any detrimental impact.

e) The need to maintain road access for the golf club.

The golf club has responsibility for maintenance of the road and the immediate verge. The Management Committee is responsible for prompt removal of fallen timber which might obstruct the road, and for hazardous trees adjoining the road.

Management programme

This section summarises the work undertaken to date since the acquisition of the site in 1993 and outlines the management necessary to meet the objectives set out in the preceding section.

Recent management

In 1993, work began to thin encroaching hawthorn, fencing was completed and boundary markers installed, and steps were constructed on a steep section of footpath. Paths were opened up to improve access.

In 1994, a new gate was fitted at the Castlegate entrance to the site and the road verges mown several times.

In 1995, further thinning of the scrub on Low Knoll was undertaken and 'No Tipping' and 'Steep Drop' signs erected by one of the old quarries. Ivy growth on the castle wall was controlled by spraying and cutting the main stems.

In 1996, thinning work continued and a notice board was erected in February. Two seats, made from timber from a fallen oak tree, were installed and the path at the Castlegate entrance stoned.

In 1997, further thinning was carried out and repairs to the steps were undertaken. Small scale thinning has continued in 1998-99 with scrub cut back from the margins on the limestone grassland area. Gaps in the boundary hedge along the eastern edge of Manor Vale have been planted up and a new gate installed at the Castlegate entrance.

Much of the thinning and footpath work has been undertaken by the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers with participation from members of the Management Committee. The Ravenswick Estate have also undertaken a considerable amount of thinning, tree safety work and scrub control on behalf of the Management Committee.

Management Committee meetings are normally followed by an inspection of the site to identify any work required.

Future management

Future management needs can be divided into 'routine' annual tasks and more occasional tasks to be undertaken as and when necessary, or as resources allow.

Annual tasks

a) Mowing of limestone grassland in Compartment 2 (area E Finches Fork): 50% should be cut and raked in August/September each year.

Note: cutting with a reciprocating blade or similar mower will make raking easier. A flail mower should not be used. Prompt removal of cuttings reduces the build-up of nutrients (thus discouraging rank grasses) and prevents smaller wildflowers becoming smothered by the mulch.

b) Sycamore and beech whips and saplings should be pulled or cut in any area where they have become numerous. A site inspection shold be taken annually to identify problem areas.

Note: specimen trees of beech and sycamore enhance the wood but both species can become invasive, casting deep shade and affecting the natural ash wood flora. The aim should be control of regeneration of these species, not their eradication.

c) The growth of Japanese knotweed should be monitored annually. If there are signs of spread, appropriate steps should be taken to control this invasive species.

Note: Japanese knotweed has established on tipped material on the embankment below the golf club car park in Compartment 2. Cutting and/or herbicide treatment should be considered to prevent further spread.

d) Cutting of encroaching vegetation along footpaths should be carried out each summer where necessary. This includes overhanging scrub to be cut by flail mower

e) Hazardous timber should be dealt with on an ongoing basis as necessary. An inspection of potentially hazardous timber should be taken annually and appropriate action taken.

Note: see 2.2.4. and 2.2.5. on the ecological importance of dead wood and recommendations for its management.

f) Hawthorn thinning: small-scale thinning of hawthorn in Compartment 2 should be continued each winter, at least for the next few years.

Note: dense, spindly hawthorn thickets have limited wildlife value and prevent re- establishment of a more natural woodland habitat. However, open-grown hawthorns along the rides and woodland edge are very valuable, providing nectar for insects and berries for birds. Old hawthorns may be particularly valuable for lichens, invertebrates etc and should never be removed.

g) Remove a proportion of bramble and sapling growth from area B to maintain open conditions.

h) Mowing of the road verges (undertaken by the gold club).

Note: grass cuttings left to mulch down may be contributing to stinging nettle growth at the foot of the slope. The possibility of boxing cuttings should be investigated.

i) Maintain a record of work undertaken each year.

Occasional tasks

a) Maintain and repair footpaths, steps and stiles as necessary.

b) Consider production of an information leaflet explaining the history and wildlife interest of Manor Vale.

c) Encourage research into the history of Manor Vale.

d) Encourage further biological survey.

e) Cut back encroaching scrub and ash saplings around the margins of limestone grassland in area E as necessary.


Baines, H. (1840). The flora of Yorkshire.Longman & Co.: London.

Dornier, A.M. (1967). Neville Castle, Kirkbymoorside: excavations 1963 and 1965. Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 42: 98-102

HAMMOND, M & CROSSLEY, R. (1992). The scarce and threatened wildlife of Ryedale: a biodiversity audit. Report to Ryedale District Council (unpublished).

HYMAN. P.S. & PARSONS, M.S. (1992). A review of the scarce and threatened Coleoptera of Great Britain. Vol.1, UK Nature Conservation no.3. Joint Nature Conservation Committee: Peterborough.

JERRAM, R., CLAYDEN, D. & REES, S. (1998). North York Moors National Park: upland vegetation survey – summary report. English Nature Research Reports No.245. English Nature: Peterborough.

KIRBY, K.J. & DRAKE, C.M. (1993). Dead wood matters: the ecology and conservation of saproxylic invertebrates in Britain. English Nature Science No. 7. English Nature, Peterborough.

Nature Conservancy Council (1987). Site management plans for nature conservation: a working guide. NCC.

PHILLIPS, P.M. (1994). Inventory of ancient woodland (provisional), North Yorkshire. Part III: Ryedale & Scarborough. English Nature: Peterborough.

RATCLIFFE, D.A. (ed) (1977). A nature conservation review. Cambridge University Press.

RAYNER, D.H. & HEMINGWAY, J.E. (eds). (1974). The geology and mineral resources of Yorkshire. Yorkshire Geological Society.

RIMMINGTON, F.C. (1970). The early deer parks of north-east Yorkshire. Part I: Introduction. Transactions of the Scarborough & District Archaeological Society, 2(13): 3-16.

RIMMINGTON, F.C. (1977). The early deer parks of north-east Yorkshire. Part II: Catalogue. Transactions of the Scarborough & District Archaeological Society, 3(20): 31-39.

RODWELL, J.S. (ed) (1991). British plant communities, 1: woodlands and scrub. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

SYKES, N. (1993). Wild plants and their habitats in the North York Moors. North York Moors National Park: Helmsley.

WESTON, A. (1994). Ryedale ancient woodland survey. Department of Biology, University of York: TMRU Reports & Papers No. 94/2

WILLIAMS, R.A.H. (1977). An excavation at Neville Castle, Kirkbymoorside, North Yorkshire, 1974. Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 49: 87-96

Appendix: Archaeological information (missing)

Appendix: 1993 Management Plan and appendices (missing)

If this can be found, it will be stored as a separate document, and a link placed here. If it is unavailable, this appendix will have to be removed.

Appendix: flowering plants and ferns

recorded at Manor Vale, Kirkbymoorside


Scientific name English name status

Acer campestre field maple o

Acer pseudoplatanus sycamore l

Achillea millefoleum yarrow vl

Aegopodium podagraria ground elder l

Agrimonia eupatoria agrimony r

Agrostis capillaries common bent vl

Agrostis stolonifera creeping bent l

Ajuga reptans bugle l

Alchemilla filicaulis ssp. vestita hairy lady's mantle l

Alchemilla xanthochlora intermediate lady's mantle r

Allium ursinum ramsons lf

Alopecurus pratensis meadow foxtail l

Anemone nemorosa wood anemone lf

Anisantha sterilis baren brome vl

Anthoxanthum odoratum sweet vernal grass l

Anthriscus sylvestris cow parsley l Aphanes arvensis parsley-piert vl

Arctium minus burdock r

Arenaria serpyllifolia thyme-leaved sandwort vl

Arrhenatherum elatius false-oat l

Arum maculatum wild arum o

Athyrium filix-femina lady fern vl

Bellis perennis daisy r

Betula pendula silver birch l

Brachypodium sylvaticum wood false-brome lf

Briza media quaking grass l

Bromus hordeaceus soft brome r

Bromus ramosus hairy brome o

Calystegia sepium large bindweed l

Carex flacca glaucous sedge vl

Carex sylvatica wood sedge l

Centaurea nigra common knapweed vl

Cerastium fontanum common mouse-ear vl

Chamerion angustifolium rosebay l

Circaea lutetiana enchanter's nightshade lf

Cirsium arvense creeping thistle o

Cirsium palustre marsh thistle r

Cirsium vulgare spear thistle o

Conopodium majus pignut lf

Corylus avellana hazel lf

Crataegus monogyna hawthorn f/la

Cruciata laevipes crosswort l

Cynosurus cristatus crested dogstail l

Dactylis glomerata cocksfoot l

Deschampsia cespitosa tussock grass o

Deschampsia flexuosa wavy hair-grass l

Digitalis purpurea foxglove r

Dryopteris dilatata broad buckler fern l

Dryopteris filix-mas male fern lf

Elytrigia repens couch grass vl

Epilobium hirsutum greater willowherb l

Erophilla verna whitlow grass r

Euphrasia nemorosa ag. eyebright r

Fagus sylvatica beech vl

Fallopia japonica Japanese knotweed vl

Festuca gigantea giant fescue vl

Festuca ovina sheep’s fescue r

Festuca rubra red fescue l

Filipendula ulmaria meadowsweet lf

Fragaria vesca wild strawberry o

Fraxinus excelsior ash a/ld

Galium aparine cleavers o

Galium saxatile heath bedstraw vl

Galium verum lady's bedstraw l

Geranium pratense meadow cranesbill l

Geranium robertianum herb Robert o

Geum urbanum wood avens lf

Geum x intermedium hybrid avens lf

Glechoma hederacea ground ivy l

Hedera helix ivy la

Helianthemum nummularium common rockrose r

Helleborus viridis green hellebore r

Heracleum sphondylium hogweed lf

Holcus lanatus Yorkshire fog l

Holcus mollis creeping soft-grass vl

Hyacinthoides non-scripta bluebell lf

Hypericum hirsutum hairy St John's wort l

Hypericum pulchrum slender St John's wort vl

Ilex aquifolium holly l

Lamium album white deadnettle r

Lapsana communis nipplewort o

Lathraea squammaria toothwort r

Lathyrus montanus bitter vetch vl

Lathyrus pratensis meadow vetchling vl

Lonicera periclymenum honeysuckle l

Lotus corniculatus common birdsfoot trefoil l

Luzula campestris field woodrush r

Luzula pilosa downy woodrush l

Luzula sylvatica greater woodrush la

Lysmachia nemorum yellow pimpernel o

Malus sp. apple r

Matricaria discoides pineapple weed r

Medicago lupulina black medick r

Melica uniflora wood melick l

Mercurialis perennis dog's mercury a

Mycelis muralis wall lettuce r

Myosotis arvensis field forget-me-not r

Myosotis sylvatica wood forget-me-not r

Oxalis acetosella wood sorrel l

Petasites hybridus butterbur vl

Phleum pratense timothy r

Pilosella officinarum mouse-ear hawkweed vl

Plantago lanceolata ribwort vl

Plantago major greater plantain o

Poa annua annual meadow-grass o

Poa trivialis rough meadow-grass l

Polystichum aculeatum hard shield fern l

Potentilla anserine silverweed l

Potentilla erecta tormentil l

Potentilla sterilis barren strawberry o

Primula veris cowslip vl

Primula vulgaris primrose lf

Prunus spinosa blackthorn l

Quercus petraea sessile oak r

Quercus robur common oak o/lf

Quercus x rosacea hybrid oak ?r

Ranunculus auricomus goldilocks buttercup lf

Ranunculus bulbosus bulbous buttercup vl

Ranunculus ficaria lesser celandine lf

Ranunculus repens creeping buttercup lf

Ribes rubrum red currant r

Ribes uva-crispa gooseberry r

Rosa canina agg. dog rose o

Rosa arvensis field rose o

Rubus fruticosus agg. bramble l

Rubus idaeus raspberry vl

Rumex acetosa common sorrel l

Rumex obtusifolius broad-leaved dock o

Rumex sanguineus wood dock l

Salix caprea goat willow r

Sambucus nigra elder o

Sanguisorba minor salad burnet l

Sanicula europaea sanicle l

Scabiosa columbaria small scabious vl

Scrophularia nodosa common figwort r

Senecio jacobaea ragwort r

Silene dioica red campion vl

Sonchus arvensis perennial sow-thistle r

Sonchus asper prickly sow-thistle r

Sorbus aucuparia rowan l

Stachys officinalis betony l

Stachys sylvatica hedge woundwort lf

Stellaria holostea greater stitchwort l

Succisa pratensis devilsbit scabious vl

Tamus communis black bryony o

Tanacetum parthenium feverfew r

Taraxacum officinale agg. dandelion r

Trifolium pratense red clover l

Trifolium repens white clover l

Trisetum flavescens yellow oat-grass l

Ulex europaeus gorse vl

Ulmus glabra wych elm o/lf

Urtica dioica stinging nettle l

Vaccinium myrtilus* bilberry l

Veronica arvensis wall speedwell vl

Veronica chamaedrys germander speedwell l

Veronica montana wood speedwell lf

Veronica officinalis heath speedwell r

Veronica serpyllifolia thyme-leaved speedwell l

Vicia cracca tufted vetch r

Vicia sativa common vetch r

Vicia sepium bush vetch l

Viola odorata sweet violet lf

Viola reichenbachiana early dog violet o

Viola riviniana common dog violet lf

STATUS (within site boundaries):

d – dominant; a – abundant; f – frequent; o – occasional; r – rare; l – local(ly);

v – very.

Additional records of flowering plants

Alliaria petiolata* garlic mustard o

Convallaria majalis lily-of-the-valley r

Epilobium montanum* broad-leaved willowherb o

Galium odoratum woodruff r

Geum rivale*1 water avens l

Hypochaeris radicata** catsear ?

Leontodon hispidus** rough hawkbit ?

Linum catharticum fairy flax r

Orchis mascula* early purple orchid l

Rumex acetosella* sheep's sorrel l

Senecio vulgaris** groundsel ?

Torilis japonica* upright hedge parsley l

Viola hirta* hairy violet l

* source: Ryedale Woodland Survey, 20/6/93 (A. Weston)

** source: Phase I survey, 13/9/98

1may refer to Geum x intermedium – no pure rivale could be found in 1998

Appendix: Further lists of flowering plants, birds, insects & lichens

The following records were compiled from 1983 to 1995 covering a range of disciplines including some flowering plants discovered since the woodland surveys of 20/6/93 (A.Weston) and 13/9/98. Since the contributors gave of their time freely without claiming any expenses it is only right that acknowledgement be made.

Compiler codes

ag Andrew Grayson, Kirkbymoorside. 1994 Y.N.U. County Diptera recorder

cs Clifford Smith, York Y.N.U. County Recorder

ds Don Smith,FRES., Kirkbymoorside. 1993-5 Ryedale Natural History Society Recorder. Compiler.

jb John Blackburn, Stockton-on-Tees. May 1995 Y.N.U. County Bryophyte recorder

mr Michael Rowntree, Kirkbymoorside. 1983-93

ns Nan Sykes, Thornton-le-Dale. Aug. 1993 Author of N.Y.M.N.P. Botanical handbook.

rd1 Ryedale District Phase 1 Survey. 13.9.1989

The compiler takes responsibility for the addition of English names and habitat notes to the records. Identifications have been made by the use of specific keys except for the micro moths, named with the help of a comprehensive reference collection belonging to the late Arthur Smith of York and except for spiders, for which I am grateful to the late Clifford Smith of York, Y.N.U. Recorder, for their identification. Bird records supplied by Michael Rowntree, late of the Manor Vale Management sub-committee: p=present in/around the wood, b=possible/probable breeders. Nan Sykes has considerably extended the original flowering plant list and added some fern species. Andrew Grayson, a local entomologist, has added more insect records and John Blackburn, mosses, liverworts and some additional flowering plants.


Accipiter nisus Sparrowhawk P

Argithalos caudatus Long-tailed Tit B

Carduelis carduelis Goldfinch P

Carduelis chloris Greenfinch B

Certhia familiaris Tree creeper B

Columba oenas Stock dove B

Columba palumbus Wood pigeon B

Corvus corone Carrion crow B

Corvus frugilegus Rook B

Corvus monedula Jackdaw B

Cuculus canorus Cuckoo P

Dendrocopos major Great spotted woodpecker B

Erithacus rubecula Robin B

Falco tinnunculus Kestrel P

Ficedula hypoleuca Pied flycatcher B

Fringilla coelebs Chaffinch B

Fringilla montifringilla Brambling P

Motacilla alba Pied Wagtail P

Muscicapa striata Spotted Flycatcher B

Parus ater Coal tit B

Parus caeruleus Blue tit B

Parus major Great tit B

Parus palustris Marsh tit B

Passer domesticus House sparrow B

Passer montanus Tree sparrow B

Phasianus colchicus Pheasant P

Phoenicurus phoenicurus Redstart B

Phylloscopus collybita Chiffchaff B

Phylloscopus trochilus Willow warbler B

Pica pica Magpie B

Picus viridis Green woodpecker B

Prunella modularis Dunnock B

Pyrrhula pyrrhula Bullfinch B

Regulus regulus Goldcrest P

Sitta europaea Nuthatch B

Streptopelia decaocto Collared dove B

Strix aluco Tawny owl B

Sturnus vulgaris Starling B

Sylvia atricapilla Blackcap B

Sylvia borin Garden warbler B

Sylvia communis Whitethroat B

Trogloytes troglodytes Wren B

Turdus iliacus Redwing P

Turdus pilaris Fieldfare P

Turdus viscivorus Mistle thrush B

Flowering plants (additional)

Arctium minus - ssp.nemorosum Wood Burdock jb

Campanula latifolia Giant bellflower ns

Campanula rotundifolia Harebell ns

Cardamine hirsuta Hairy bittercress jb

Elymus caninus Bearded couch ns

Epilobium obscurum Short-fruited willowherb ds

Epilobium roseum Pale willowherb (small patch) ds

Knautia arvensis Field scabious ns

Leucanthemum vulgare Ox-eye daisy ds (one plant)

Odontites verna Red bartsia ds (on path in C)

Prunus avium Wild cherry ns

Spiraea salicifolia Bridewort (Willow-leaved Spiraea) ds (one in area C)

Tanacetum vulgare Tansy ns

Thymus praecox Wild thyme ns

Torilis arvensis Spreading hedge-parsley ds


Dryopteris dilatata Broad buckler fern ns

Dryopteris filix-mas Male-fern ns


Amandina(Buellia) punctata ds - frequent on bark

Calicium viride ds - occasional & fertile (pin lichen)

Caloplaca citrina ds - a calcicole, on limestone outcrops

Caloplaca flavescens ds - ditto

Candelariella reflexa ds - occasional

Candelariella vitellina ds - a calcifuge, on dead wood

Chaenotheca ferruginea ds - frequent on bark, another pin lichen

Cladonia ochrochlora ds - occasional

Cliostomum griffithii ds - frequent on bark, fertile

Evernia prunastri ds - occ; pendulous, on bark

Hypogymnia physodes ds - frequent on twigs and trunks

Hypogymnia tubulosa ds - occasional

Lecanactis abietina ds - frequent on trunks

Lecania cyrtella ds - on one Crataegus in C

Lecanora albescens ds - limestone outcrops

Lecanora chlarotera ds - occasional on branches

Lecanora conizaeoides ds - abundant

Lecanora expallens ds - frequent and fertile

Lecanora intumescens ds - occasional

Lepraria incana ds - abundant

Lepraria lobificans ds - on rock face

Leproplacachrysodeta ds - mustard coloured powdering on limestone outcrops

Melanelia fuliginosa ssp. glabratula ds - occasional

Melanelia subaurifera ds - occasional on branches

Ochrolechia androgyna ds - frequent

Parmelia saxatilis ds - abundant on branches

Parmelia sulcata ds - occasional

Pertusaria amara ds - frequent on bark

Pertusaria hemisphaerica ds - occasional

Phlyctis argena ds - occasional (in its original bark habitat)

Physcia adscendens ds - frequent

Physcia tenella ds - occasional

Xanthoria candelaria ds - frequent

Xanthoria parietina ds - occasional on bark

Xanthoria polycarpa ds - frequent


Anomodon viticulosus jb Isothecium myurum jb

Atrichum undulatum jb Mnium hornum jb

Brachythecium rutabulum jb Neckera complanata jb

Bryum capillare jb Orthodontium lineare jb

Calliergon cuspidatum jb Orthotrichum affine jb

Ctenidium molluscum jb Plagiomnium undulatum jb

Dicranoweisia cirrata jb Plagiothecium succulentum jb

Eurhynchium praelongum jb Polytrichum formosum jb

Eurhynchium striatum jb Pseudoscleropodium purum jb

Eurhynchium swartzii jb Rhynchostegium confertum jb

Fissidens taxifolius jb Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus jb

Homalothecium sericeum jb Thamnobryum alopecurum jb

Hypnum cupressiforme jb Thuidium tamariscinum jb

Isopterygium elegans jb Tortula muralis jb


Calopogeia fissa jb Metzgeria furcata jb

Lophocolea heterophylla jb Plagiochila porelloides jb

Lophocolea rivularis jb

Fungi (larger)

Pleurotus cornucopiae ds Oyster mushroom (felled trunk, uncommon)

Fungi (micro)

Epichloe typhia ds white 'Choke' on ?Cocksfoot

Trachspora ?intrusa ds orange rust on Alchemilla


Arianta arbustorum ds snail, damp places

Arion ater ds large slug, brown form


Amaurobius fenestralis cs fluffy-web spinner, under bark

Enoplognatha ovata cs

Entelecara acuminata cs tiny black spider, stalked eyes

Lepthyphantes obscurus cs spins a sheet web in bushes

Linyphia peltata cs horizontal sheet web

Metellina (Meta) mengei cs spins a small orb web in woods, wasteland etc

Pardoa amentata cs a ground wolf spider

Pisaura mirabilis cs a wandering hunter in woods and heaths

Tetragnatha extensa cs a very long-legged grass spider

Tetragnatha montana cs

Theridion bimaculatum cs a tiny (3mm) meadow s[pider

Theridion mystaceum cs often on tree trunks

Theridion sisyphium cs bushes and low vegetation

Xysticus cristatus cs a crab spider

Harvestmen - Opiliones

Leiobunum rotundatum ds abundant, ubiquitous

Millipedes - Diplopoda

Cylindroiulus punctatus ds in a rotting stump

Iulus scandinavius ds rotten wood stump

Centipedes - Chilopoda

Crytops hortensis ds one of the longer brown centipedes, at least 20 pairs

of legs: under bark

Lithobius forficatus ds very common, robust brown centipede. Found

under bark

Woodlice - Isopoda

Oniscus asellus ds very common ubiquitous Isopod

Silverfish - Thysanura

Dilta hibernica ds an unusual species from a stone wall

Earwigs - Dermaptera

Forficula auricularis ds the common earwig

Dragonflies - Odonata

Coenagrion puella ag Azure damselfly

Ischnura elegans ds Blue-tailed damselfly

Plant & Water bugs - Hemiptera-Heteroptera

Anthocoris nemorum ds abundant flower bug

Calocoris sexguttatus ds brightly coloured plant-bug

Dryophilocoris quadrimaculatus ds found on oak

Leptopterna dolobrata ds meadow plantbug - in various grassy places/moist conditions

Lygus maritimus ds common, on a range of host plants

Lygus wagneri ds on dock, nettle in clearings & hedgerows

Mecomma ambulans ds common among rank vegetation at wood margins

Nabis rugosus ds the Common Damsel bug - a predator

Orthops campestris ds feeds on many Umbelliferae

Orthops kalmi ds ditto

Psallus wagneri ds taken on hawthorn, also found on oak

Scolopostethus affinis ds taken on nettles

Stenodema laevigatum ds from grass in moist localities

Stenotus binotatus ds feeds on grasses; Yorkshire at northern limit

Leaf Hoppers - Hemiptera Homoptera

Alebra albostriella ds

Aphrophora alni ds a large froghopper

Cercopis vulnerata ds a brightly coloured red and black froghopper

Cixius nervosus ds

Evacanthus nervosus ds

Philaenus spumarius ds the common 'Cuckoo-spit' froghopper

Stenocranus minutus ds

Scorpionflies & others - Megaloptera

Panorpa germanica ds 'Scorpionfly'

Butterflies - Lepidoptera

Anthocharis cardamines ds Orange Tip

Aphantopus hyperantus ds Ringlet - occasional

Inachis io ds Peacock

Maniola jurtina ds Meadow Brown

Pieris brassicae ds Large Cabbage White

Pieris rapae ds Small Cabbage White

Larger Moths - Lepidoptera (macro)

Colostygia pectinataria ds Green Carpet - to light, after dark

Epirrhoe alternata ds Common carpet

Hepialus humuli ds Ghost moth

Odezia atrata ds Chimney Sweeper

Orgyia antiqua ds Vapourer moth (the catepillar stage noted)

Orthosia incerta ds Clouded Drab - to light, after dark

Plusia gamma ds Silver Y - after dark, at Hogweed

Timandra griseata (amata) ds Bloodvein moth - after dark

Xanthorhoe montanata ds Silver-ground Carpet - after dark, very common

Smaller Moths - Lepidoptera (micro)

Adela fibulella ds

Anthophila fabriciana ds

Cydia aurana ds

Glyphipterix simpliciella ds Cocksfoot moth (wing-span 2mm)

Olethreutes lacunana ds

Scoparia ambigualis ds after dark

Stenoptilia bipunctidactyla ds plume moth

Udea olivalis ds Olive-brindled Pearl

Beetles - Coleoptera

Abax parallelopipedus ds large, black ground beetle

Agriotes pallidulus ds click beetle

Altica sp. ds fleabeetle

Amara plebeja ds smallgroundbeetle

Athous hirtus ds click beetle

Cantharis nigricans ds soldier beetle

Cantharis pallida ds soldier beetle

Cassida viridis ds tortoise beetle (on thistle)

Clytus arietis ds wasp beetle - a wood borer

Coccinella 7-punctata ds 7-spot ladybird

Demetrias atricapilla ds

Hypostenus similis ds predatory 'brachelytra'

Malachius bipustulatus ds a predatory flower beetle

Malthodes marginatus ds ditto

Oedemera virescens ds small wood borer - RDB3 status, at buttercup

Philonthus cognatus ds small brachelytra ground beetle with irridescent


Phyllobius calcaratus ds common metallic green weevil

Propylea 14-punctata ds 14-spot ladybird - abundant

Pterostichus madidus ds very common black ground beetle - pit trap

Pyrochroa serraticornis ds Cardinal beetle

Rhynchophora assimilis ds weevil, abundant on Alliaria

Sinodendron cylindricum ds wood borer, emerging from hole

Sphaeridium lunatum ds dung beetle

Sawflies - Hymenoptera/Symphyta

Macrophya ribis ds

Tenthredo livida ds

Tenthredo mandibularis ds larvae feed on Burdock

Ants, Bees & Wasps - Hymenoptera/Aculeata

Ancistrocerus parietinus ds potter wasp

Andrena haemorrhoa ds mining bee

Andrena jacobi ds ditto

Apis mellifera ds honey bee

Bombus hortorum ds Small Garden Humble-bee

Bombus lapidarius ds Large Red-tailed Humble-bee

Bombus lucorum ag Small Earth Humble-bee

Bombus pascuorum(agrorum) ds Common Carder Bee

Bombus pratorum ds Early Humble-bee

Bombus terrestris ds Buff-tailed Humble-bee

Dolichovespula sylvestris ds Social wasp

Mellinus arvensis ds digger wasp

Nomada flavoguttata ds a parasitic nomad bee, breeds in Andrena nests

Nomada marshamella ds parasitic nomad bee

Nomada panzeri ds ditto

Osmia rufa ds the Red Mining bee

Psithyrus bohemicus ds Gipsy Cuckoo bee - takes over nest of Bombus lucorum

Psithyrus vestalis ds Vestal Cuckoo bee

Craneflies - Diptera

Limonia nubeculosa ds small, delicate cranefly

Limonia tripunctata ds ditto - wings with 3 spots

Nephrotoma flavescens ds yellow & black bodied cranefly

Tipula hortorum ds large 'agricultural' cranefly

Tipula lunata ds

Tipula variipennis ds

Tipula vernalis ds

Empids & Asilids - Diptera

Chrysopilus asiliformis ag

Dioctria rufipes ds/ag robber fly

Empis femorata ag

Empis livida ag

Empis tessellata ds

Empis trigramma ds

Hybos grossipes ds very small empid

Rhamphomyia atra ag

Rhamphomyia sulcata ag

'Dollie' flies & rest of the Brachycera - Diptera

Beris chalybata ds/ag

Beris vallata ds

Bibio johannis ds

Bibio lepidus ds

Bibio marci ds St.Mark's fly

Bibio nigriventris ds

Bombylius major ds Bee fly - only one seen

Chrysopilus cristatus ds

Dilophus femoratus ds Fever fly

Dolichopus ungulatus ds a common 'dollie'

Microchrysa polita ds

Poecilobothrus nobilitatus ds handsome 'dollie' with white-tipped wings

Rhagio tringarius ds Snipe-fly

Rhaphium appendiculatum ag

Sargus flavipes ds Soldier fly, breeds in dung

Hoverflies & Conopidae - Diptera

Cheilosia albitarsis ds

Cheilosia antiqua - var.A ds/ag

Cheilosia illustrata ds a hairy Cheilosia

Cheilosia pagana ag

Cheilosia variabilis ds

Conops quadrifasciata ag an internal bumble-bee parasite

Dasysyrphus venustus ag

Epistrophe eligans ds/ag

Episyrphus balteatus ds a regular migrant

Eristalis arbustorum ag

Eristalis pertinax ds/ag

Eristalis tenax ag the Drone-fly

Melanostoma mellinum ag

Melanostoma scalare ds/ag

Merodon equestris ds/ag Narcissus bulb fly

Myathropa florea ds

Neoascia podagrica ag

Pipiza noctiluca-form.F ds

Platycheirus albimanus ag

Platycheirus manicatus ds/ag

Platycheirus tarsalis ag

Portevinia maculata ag

Rhingia campestris ds/ag Snout fly

Sericomyia silentis ag a large, wasp-like hoverfly

Sicus ferrugineus ds internal bumble-bee parasite

Sphegina clunipes ag possibly the smallest british hoverfly

Syritta pipiens ds/ag

Syrphus ribesii ds/ag

Volucella pellucens ds/ag larva scavenges in bees' nests

Xylota segnis ag

Xylota sylvarum ag

Remainder of Cyclorrhapha - Diptera

Anthomyia pluvialis ds a black & white marked muscid fly

Calliphora vicina ag a bluebottle

Calliphora vomitoria ds/ag the Common bluebottle

Chaetostomella cylindrica ds

Cynomya mortuorum ds a large, brilliant green blowfly

Dryomyza analis ds

Eriothrix rufomaculata ds/ag a parasitic tachinid

Euleia heraclei ds the Celery fly

Graphomya maculata ds a muscid

Gymnochaeta viridis ds a large green parasitic fly, larvae internal caterpillar parasites.

Limnia unguicornis ds larvae attack snails

Lucilia caesar ds Greenbottle

Mesembrina meridiana ds a large, black muscid, breeds in dung

Opomyza florum ds

Opomyza germinationis ds

Orthellia caesarion ds a Greenbottle

Pelidnoptera fuscipennis ds

Phaonia variegata ag

Pherbellia albocostata ds

Psila merdaria ds

Psila obscuritarsis ds

Scathophaga stercoraria ds the Yellow dungfly - abundant

Sepsis violacea ds

Tephritis ??ruralis ds

Tricholauxania praeusta ds

Xyphosia miliaria ds larva galls thistle heads


Dasyneura ulmariae ds midge galls on Meadowsweet leaves

Dasyneura urticae ds midge galls in axils of Stinging nettle

Eriphyes macrochelus ds mite galls on Field Maple

Eriophyes macrorhynchus ds red mite galls on Sycamore leaves

Geocrypta galii ds midge galls on Galium terminal leaves

Appendix: Sample Work Schedule form

(not presently available?)

(Old table of contents, kept for checking, to be deleted when no longer required)

1.1. General information 1

1.1.1. Location 1

1.1.2. Summary description 1

1.1.3. Tenure, management arrangements,

rights of way and easements 1

1.1.4 Map coverage 2

1.2. Environmental information 2

1.2.1. Physical environment 2

1.2.2. Ecology 2 Vegetation 2 Plant communities 3 Fauna 4

1.2.3. Archaeology and land use history 4

Part 2: Evaluation and objectives 6

2.1. Conservation status 6

2.1.1. Nature conservation 6

2.1.2. Archaeology 6

2.2. Evaluation of nature conservation interest 7

2.3. Management objectives 10

2.4. Constraints on management 10

Part 3: Management programme 12

3.1. Recent management 12

3.2 Future management 12

3.2.1. Annual tasks 12

3.2.2. Occasional tasks 13

Part 4: References 14

Map 1: site boundaries and management compartments.

Map 2: habitat features referred to in the Management Plan.

Map.3: location of utilities.

Appendix 1: Archaeological information (missing)

Appendix 2: 1993 Management Plan and appendices (missing)

Appendix 3: First list of flowering plants 15

Appendix 4: Further lists of flowering plants, birds, insects & lichens 18

Appendix 5: Sample Work Schedule form 25

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